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Talking about the hero behind the speaker-frequency divider

Release time: 2021-10-02    Viewers: 27

If the speaker unit is the soul of the speaker, then the frequency divider belongs to the blood of the speaker. The frequency divider divides the entire audio signal into medium, high and low frequencies and sends it to different speaker units, allowing the speaker unit to process only the frequency band it is best at. . In the design of the speaker, the crossover is also a test of the skill of the speaker designer. The reason why many speaker makers are affirmed is because of their achievements in crossover theory and design, because the speaker is determining the cabinet. After that, the later tuning is solved by a crossover, so the design of the crossover is also the designer's own sound philosophy. Today we will take a look at the hero behind the speakers-the crossover.


Talking about the hero behind the speaker-frequency divider


The frequency divider is divided into:
Two-way frequency: high frequency, low frequency
Three-way frequency: high, medium, low
Four-way frequency: high, medium, low, ultra-low
The frequency divider can be divided into "power frequency divider" and "electronic frequency divider" according to whether it is active or not. Under normal circumstances, the frequency dividers we are talking about are power frequency dividers.
A power frequency division (passive frequency division)
The use of power divider is the most widely used. Most speakers are basically power dividers as long as the divider is built-in.
Its characteristic is that the passive circuit is located after the power amplifier and is set in the speaker. Through the LC filter network, the power audio signal output by the power amplifier is divided into bass, treble, or bass, midrange, and treble, and they are sent to their respective speakers. Among them, the connection is relatively simple and easy to use, but it consumes power, audio valley points appear, and crossover distortion occurs. Its parameters are directly related to the speaker impedance, and the speaker impedance is a function of frequency, which deviates greatly from the nominal value. , So the error is also relatively large, unfavorable adjustment.

B. Electronic frequency division (active frequency division):
Electronic frequency divider is also the "electrical divider" that enthusiasts often refer to. Each electrical branch must use an independent power amplifier. The overall cost is relatively high and the circuit structure is relatively complex. Therefore, some more complex and high-end HIFI systems or professional sound reinforcement systems are used.
Its characteristic is that the active circuit is in front of the power amplifier. After the pre-audio signal is divided, the independent power amplifier is used to amplify each audio frequency band signal and send it to the corresponding speaker unit separately because of the current comparison. It is small, so it can be realized with a smaller power electronic active filter. It is easier to adjust, reduce power loss, and interference between speaker units, so that the signal loss is relatively small and the sound quality is better.


Talking about the hero behind the speaker-frequency divider



Electronic frequency divider with complicated circuit
The frequency divider can be divided into first-order frequency division, second-order frequency division, third-order frequency division, fourth-order frequency division, etc. according to the type of filter:
Simply put, the difference in frequency division of different orders is the difference in roll-off slope and phase. The roll-off slope of general frequency division is 6dB/Oct, the phase of the signal is reversed by 90° after the first-order divider, the roll-off slope of the second-order frequency division is 12dB/Oct, and the phase of the signal is reversed by 180 after the first-order divider. °, and so on. It should be noted that it is not that the fourth-order crossover is better than the first-order crossover. Although the design of the fourth-order crossover is more complicated than the first-order crossover, the frequency division used depends on the matched speakers and cabinets. At the same time, there should be phase considerations. Generally, the woofer uses a first-order crossover, while the midrange and tweeter use a higher-order crossover.

Summarize:
An audio-visual enthusiast should have a general understanding of crossovers, but if you want to be a DIY player and design the crossovers yourself, it will take a lot of knowledge for a long time.
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